HISTORY OF JACK RUSELL TERRIER
All the histororical sources about Jack Russell Terrier are heading to Great Britain, the great mother of cynology. Great Britain has traditional hunting tradition over centuries.
When hunting a fox, hunters were using dogs, that found the fox and with barking tracked it down. Hunters on horses followed the pack and shut the fox after a long chase.
But from time to time fox escaped and hid itself in a burrow, unaccessible for dogs as well as hunters. This was the moment when an ancestor of Russell terrier comes to do his job.
Dog bred in order to track down a fox in aburrow. Dog of huge courage that runs straight into a hole several meters deep in the ground and barks until the fox comes out.
However they were trained not to kill a fox. Those dogs did not had exactly settled type. They varied in hair length, its colour, its structure and their size.
All of those dogs were called „working dogs“. Because this dog was interesting also for non-hunters, who were choosing dogs with specific type and character, this type of dogs began to be bred which led to todays lively gentleman Jack Russell terrier.
CONDITIONS FOR REGISTERING A BROOD BITCH OR A STUD MALE IN CZECH REPUBLIC
1) SPECIAL PART
Dogs ( mean both males and females), who meet conditions in paragraph 2 and following conditions within particular breed, can be used for breeding:
Jack Russell terier – show result at least very good, only two teeth can be missing, one of the dogs from breeding pair must have all teeth ( from the breeding conditions point of view missing M3 is NOT considered as missing tooth).
2) GENERAL PART
a) Breeding dogs must respond to standard.
b) With all mentioned breeds only dogs with bite according to its breed standard and correct position of canines can be used for breeding.
c) Dog with missing incisor can not be used for breeding.
d) Dog with tail anomaly can not be used for breeding.
e) Agresive or fearful dog can not be used for breeding.
f) Dogs that are going to be used for breeding must have documented their height and number of teeth. Both must be checked in age at least 12 months.
g) Unless otherwise specified, show results written in pedigree, its enclosure or copy of critics from show is valid for registering a dog for breeding. For registering only show results given in age at least 12 months is valid. Show result must be given at show in Czech Republic organised by organisation covered in by ČMKU. Show must be CAC level (International show, National show, Club show, Special show).
h) Dogs who reached 14 months of age can be used for breeding. Females end their breeding season at the day of 8 years birhtday. Exception can be made by breeding club advisor, in accordance to valid czech legislation (Decree num. "5/2009 Sb. o ochraně zvířat při veřejném vystoupení a při chovu"). In this case female can be bred until the end of calander year, that she reached 8 years of age. Exception can be only based on vets confirmation (not older than 1 month) about females health and ability to breed a litter. Males have no upper age limit for breeding. (Explanation: If females was born 1st Janury 2009, she can be first mated 1st March 2010)
ch) Only one litter can be registered during one calendar year. This rule does not relate to alternative breeding. In that case 3 litter can be registered in 2 following calander years (see decree num. 5/2009 Sb.).
i) If a litter counts more than 6 puppies, breeder has to contact main breeding club advisor. In this case breeder does not send formular „přihláška k zápisu štěňat“ (means - Applocation for puppies registery) to breeding register, but to main club breeding advisor, who will place a note that club was informed about numerous litter and pass on the formular to breeding register.
j) If there is a suspicion that puppies do not have the listed parents, club has a right to order control of paternity; if the control proves that at least one of the puppies has another than listed parents, breeder bears the costs, in another case club bears the costs.
k) Puppies can leave to their new homes at age at least 50 days.
l) Club board or authorized member of the club board can make an exception in breeding conditions in justified cases. Exception can not be made in requirements listed in paragraphs 2) letters a), b), c), d), e), f), h), k) and requirements for age limits listed in paragraph g).
Whole reading see "ORGANIZAČNÍ A ZÁPISNÍ ŘÁD KLUBU CHOVATELŮ TERIÉRŮ" (Organizational and Enrolment Index order of Terrier Breeders Club, CZ)
CHARACTER OF JACK RUSSEL TERRIER
Jack Russell terriers have always been working dogs, as nearly all dog breeds. In contrast to other breeds Jack Russell Terrier is very similar to its original base. The very first breeders kept on mind working abilities of breed from the begining. Appearance was considered as secondary, as it has to be fit for purpose. Although hunting is not that common nowadays, breeders still head to original breeding aims. They were against exaggerated exterior beautification, which happend to many other breeds and leads to decrease of working abilities. We do not meet them often on shows. They are not contrieved, which makes them attractive. Genetical deseases nearly not appear and estimate of life lenght of 15 years is really not unduly optimistic. All that means that original properties of breed were not weakened.
Jack Russell terriers are intelligent working dogs filled up with energy. JRTs are not dogs for lazybones. Those dogs with a lot of energy inside can hardly find enough of activity in avarage residential district. It is up to its owner to offer his dog enough of action. Do not expect that JRT will adapt to lazy life, that will not happen. It is clear that due to its original purpose JRT will be looking for an activity you will not appriciate neather your neighbours. That is why the breed is suitable especially for people, who like to do something with their dog and do not want to spend time at home.
It is important to keep on mind that Jacks are hunting dogs and have a lot of hunting gift. When a puppy comes to a new homes, where more house animals are kept, it will accept them usually without any complications. When Jack Russell grows up together with parrots, ferrets and cats it will not harm them, they can even become very good friends. But also from the other side: if you want to bring home grown up jack, who had no contact with animals before, remember it can think of other animals as a prey and it will act like it.
Jack Russell terrier is a real friend of a human. When a visit comes dog will bark, but nothing more than that. Visitors are usually warmly welcomed: more people bring more joy. Well socialized JRT is usually good company for children of your own or unknown. Dog are not hypersensitive, they have sporty character and they love jokes and games - it does not matter how crazy and how long they are. On the other hand they are very independent. That comes from its original purpose - decision made in a burrow was his own not his owners. That is why they need a consistent upbringing. They do not listen to their master becase they want to serve him but becase they like it - only for their own. It is necessary to train them possitive and interesting way. They do not like boring training. On the other hand too democratic owners do not have much success with training niether as dogs just do what they want.
If JRT grows up inton ute happy and uncomplicated sportive dog or notorious terrorizing JRT, depends only on his owner.
Used literature: Esther Verhoef-Verhallen - Jack Russell Terrier
Why puppy of JRT with pedigree?
I would like to explain why an investment into a pedigree puppy is the right investment.
Breed of Jack Russell Terrier is recognized by FCI since 2000 and belongs to group III – terriers.
Puppy with pedigree has its own document of origin, where 4 generations of ancestors are listed. If a breeder wants to have pedigree puppies, he has to go though all the following points:
- He has to go with JRT female (at age of 12 months and older) to international, national or special show – where she can not be given worse result than "very good" to fillup breeding condition of exterior ( rated characteristics: Exterior, movement, colouring - white colour has to dominate, bite, temperament, etc.)
- International judge has to confirm height and number of teeth into a pedigree
- breeding club advisor has to confirm choosed stud male ( advisor is checking too close line breeding, height according to the standard, number of teeth, etc.)
- after delivery of puppies, breeder has to send a list of born males and females to breeding register
- breeding register puts those info into database and gives numbers to all puppies
- in 6 weeks of age puppies get tattoo number according to number in register or chip – sticker with number of chip has to be sticked on the formular from breeding register
- filled up formular has to be send to breeding register and the register will issue pedigrees based on the informations on the formular
It is only an administrative part of that, what a right breeder has to do!!!
Our vet is always there for us 24 hours a day when our females are going to delivery. Je připraven při jakékoliv komplikaci zasáhnout. When delivery has a delay longer than 6 days it is necessary to do a c-section, so we have to watch our future mothers from the begining of their heat and mating. We are with our females until the end of their delivery – we always have to see that placenta has come out!!! it is also important to check sucking reflex of puppies and ensure that puppies are drinking colostrum, which contains all the necessary antibodies for immunity of a puppy.
Before female gets pregnant it is necessary to give her deworming pills. Puppies have to be dewormed at age of 2 - 3 weeks and after 14 days again – depends on the kind of used preparation.
Females get dry food for pregnant and nursing females, not cheap food at all.
We give to our puppies only puppy food, which is necessary for their right development. We also add to the food many other vitamins to keep our pppies in a good health condition.
Before our puppies leave to their new homes, they are properly vaccinated and their health condition is checked. Each of our puppies gets Eupass, where all the necessary statements are listed (date of issue, deworming termins, date, location, date of vaccination and also date of next vaccination.
When puppies are leaving a buying contract is signed and each puppy gets „starting package“ for its new life. Puppies do not stop exist for us after they leave our home. We always try to get info how are they doing in their new home, how are their show and other results. We are simply proud that we brough on the world dogs that make us and their new owners happy.
FCI STANDARD OF JACK RUSSELL TERRIER
COUNTRY OF DEVELOPMENT : Australia.
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD : 25.10.2000.
UTILIZATION : A good working Terrier with ability to go to ground. An excellent companion dog.
CLASSIFICATION F.C.I. : Group 3 Terriers.
Section 2 Small Terriers.
With working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY : The Jack Russell Terrier originated in England in the 1800’s due to the efforts of the Reverend John Russell. He developed a strain of Fox Terriers to suit his needs for a dog to run with his foxhounds and go to ground to bolt the fox and other quarry from their dens. Two varieties evolved with basically similar Standards except for differences, mainly in height and proportions. The taller, more squarely built dog is now known as the Parson Russell Terrier and the shorter, slightly longer proportioned dog, is known as the Jack Russell Terrier.
GENERAL APPEARANCE : A strong, active, lithe working Terrier of great character with flexible body of medium length. His smart movement matches his keen expression. Tail docking is optional and the coat may be smooth, rough or broken.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS :
• The overall dog is longer than high.
• The depth of the body from the withers to the brisket should equal the length of foreleg from elbows to the ground.
• The girth behind the elbows should be about 40 to 43 cm.
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : A lively, alert and active Terrier with a keen, intelligent expression. Bold and fearless, friendly but quietly confident.
CRANIAL REGION :
Skull : The skull should be flat and of moderate width gradually decreasing in width to the eyes and tapering to a wide muzzle.
Stop : Well defined but not over pronounced.
FACIAL REGION :
Nose : Black.
Muzzle : The length from the stop to the nose should be slightly shorter than from the stop to the occiput.
Lips : Tight-fitting and pigmented black.
Jaws/Teeth : Very strong, deep, wide and powerful. Strong teeth closing to a scissor bite.
Eyes : Small dark and with keen expression. MUST not be prominent and eyelids should fit closely. The eyelid rims should be pigmented black. Almond shape.
Ears : Button or dropped of good texture and great mobility.
Cheeks : The cheek muscles should be well developed.
NECK : Strong and clean allowing head to be carried with poise.
General : Rectangular.
Back : Level. The length from the withers to the root of tail slightly greater than the height from the withers to the ground.
Loin : The loins should be short, strong and deeply muscled.
Chest : Chest deep rather than wide, with good clearance from the ground, enabling the brisket to be located at the height mid-way between the ground and the withers. Ribs should be well sprung from the spine, flattening on the sides so that the girth behind the elbows can be spanned by two hands - about 40 cm to 43 cm.
Sternum : Point of sternum clearly in front of the point of shoulder.
TAIL : May droop at rest. When moving should be erect and if docked the tip should be on the same level as ears.
Shoulders : Well sloped back and not heavily loaded with muscle.
Upper arm : Of sufficient length and angulation to ensure elbows are set under the body.
Forelegs : Straight in bone from the elbows to the toes whether viewed
from the front or the side.
HINDQUARTERS : Strong and muscular, balanced in proportion to the shoulder.
Stifles : Well angulated.
Hock joints : Low set.
Rear pastern(Metatarsus) : Parallel when viewed from behind while in free standing position.
FEET : Round, hard, padded, not large, toes moderately arched, turned neither in nor out.
GAIT / MOVEMENT : True, free and springy.
HAIR : May be smooth, broken or rough. Must be weatherproof. Coats should not be altered (stripped out) to appear smooth or broken.
COLOUR : White MUST predominate with black and/or tan markings. The tan markings can be from the lightest tan to the richest tan (chestnut).
SIZE AND WEIGHT :
Ideal Height : 25 cm (10 ins) to 30 cm (12 ins).
Weight : Being the equivalent of 1 kg to each 5 cm in height, i.e. a 25 cm high dog should weigh approximately 5 kg and a 30 cm high dog should weigh 6 kg.
FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree. and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. However, the following weaknesses should be particularly penalised:
- Lack of true Terrier characteristics.
- Lack of balance, i.e. over exaggeration of any points.
- Sluggish or unsound movement.
- Faulty mouth.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.